Electric Vehicle

Updated: Jan 27

It is a very well known field these days as we are more conscious about environment and governments across the world promoting and taking interest.

Electric vehicles are the vehicle which runs on electric motors, the number of motors depends from vehicle.

The motor in the vehicle is connected to the wheels with a drive train, we do't need a gearbox for speed reduction in EV as speed of motor can be controlled by amount of supplied power, also to move the vehicle we don't need a complex gear arrangement, it can be done by reversing polarity of motor. So we can say electric vehicles are less complicated when it comes to drive train mechanism.

This segment of vehicles run on battery power instead of gasoline engine. The battery pack installed in the vehicle is charged and then it is used to run the motor.

Fig 1. Tesla Roadster (BEV)

Types of EV

Based on consumption of energy and types of energy used by the electric vehicles classified as

1. Battery Electric Vehicle(BEV)-

These vehicles are considered as complete electric vehicle as they use rechargeable batteries only. They may use regenerative braking for charging of batteries. These are the most common type of plug-in vehicle.

2. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(PHEV)-

This category of vehicles runs on combination of electric power and gasoline engine, the vehicle runs on battery power initially. The vehicle runs 10 to 40 miles on battery and after that the power source is changed to fuel to extend the range therefore it is known as Extended-Range Electric Vehicle.

The battery in these vehicles is charged through plugin and regenerative breaking.

Fig. 2: Mercedes C350E (PHEV)

3. Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV)-

Hybrid electric vehicles are combination of combustion engine and electric drive-train, the battery of this vehicle is charged through regenerative braking, some of the HEVs charge its battery through a generator mechanism connected with IC engine or directly power the drive train through the generator. In modern HEVs, at idle the control system stops the engine at idle condition and restart when needed, in meantime it functions on battery power.

Fig. 3: Toyota Prius (HEV)

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